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7th Lesson: Nahi Dudalako
7TH. LESSON: "NAHI DUDALAKO"
Today, we will see the basque ways of verbs "must", "want" and "can".
1- BEHAR, NAHI, AHAL-EZIN
-BEHAR: "Ikastolara joan behar dut" (I MUST go to the school)
On the one hand, "Behar" is used alone, meaning "to need", with, usually, the NOR-NORK auxiliary verb (dut, dugu, dute, etc.):
Ogia behar dut (I need bread)
On the other hand, *as an auxiliary*, "behar" is postponed to the main verb, then followed by, usually, the NOR-NORK or NOR-NORI-NORK auxiliary verb (dut, diot, dugu, dute, didate, etc.). It means, depending on the context, "obligation" or "intention to do something":
Etxera joan behar duzue (You must go home)
-NAHI: "Ikastolara joan nahi dut" (I WANT to go to the school)
As in the previous verb, NAHI also may be used as a single or as an auxiliary verb. In both cases, the NOR-NORK auxiliary verb (dut, dugu, dute, etc.) will be used. The meaning is always the same: TO WANT. "Want + something + NOR-NORK" or "want + verb + NOR-NORK".
Ogia nahi dut (I want some bread)
Those are used just as auxiliaries with any other verb. AHAL means "to be able to", and EZIN means "to be unable to".
Ezin naiz kalera joan (I can't go to the street)
2- ZERGATIK (Why?)
In basque, the most usual way for causal sentences is adding the particle -LAKO to the auxiliary verb.
Euritakoa hartu dut euria egin behar duelako (I took the umbrella, because it is going to rain)
Txapela jantzi dut eguzkia dagoelako. (I put the cap because it's sunny)
Umea negarrez dago gose delako (The child is crying because he is hungry)
Ez dut etxea erosi, garestia delako ( I didn't buy the house, because it is expensive)
As you may have noticed an "-e" is added to LAKO whenever the auxiliary verb doesn't end by -Gu, -Zu, -Zue, -Te, -O, or -E ( dugulako, duzulako, dutelako, zaiolako or dielako don't take any "e").
-T and -K/-N become, as always, -DA and -A/-NA (DUT-->dudalako; DUK-->dualako; DUN-->dunalako)
-Umea negarrez dago. Erori egin da. Zergatik dago umea negarrez? (Why is the child crying?) Erori egin delako (Because he felt)
-Ohera noa. Berandu da. Zergatik zoaz ohera (Why are you going to bed?) Berandu delako (Because it's late.)
(Please fill in the blanks: in the first part, you will have to write the auxiliary verb, then the causal particle in the second part)
Ex: Bainugela garbitu BEHAR..DUT, zikin dagoELAKO...
Gurasoek konketa berria erosi NAHI....., puskatu egin da.....
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