buber.net > Basque > Euskara > 6th Lesson: Deklina... whaaat?
For security reasons, user contributed notes have been disabled.
6th Lesson: Deklina... whaaat?
6TH. LESSON, DEKLINA... whaaat?
(Vocabulary at the end)
Well, we are sorry for the delay to produce this lesson. Lately, we don't have much time for this undertaking. Anyway.
Today, we will take a look on basque declension, the basque suffix system (DEKLINABIDEA in basque). Yes, declination in the raw. Don't panic.
Indefinite Singular Plural Meaning NOR -- -a -ak ("who" intransitive) NORK -(e)k -ak -ek ("who" transitive) NORI -(r)i -ari -ei ("to whom") NOREN -(r)en -aren -en ("whose") NOREKIN -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin ("with whom") NORENTZAT -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat ("for whom") NORENGATIK -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik ("for whom") NON -(e)tan -(e)an -etan ("where") NONGO -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako ("of") NONDIK -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etatik ("from") NORA -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara ("to") NORAINO -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino ("up to") NORANTZ -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz ("towards") NORAKO -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako ("for/to") NORTAZ -(e)z/-taz -az -etaz ("by", "about"...)
Let us remember a few things:
1- In basque, nominal expressions (nouns, noun + adjective, nominalized verbs...) take different functions depending on their suffix. Examples with "neska" (girl) and "mutil" (boy):
neska, mutila (subject intransitive)
2- Sufixes go at the end of the nominal syntagm:
3- The indefinite form is used, generally speaking, with quantifiers; with demonstrative adjectives; in questions; in pronouns; in proper nouns...
(Zein mutil? Zein etxetan? Hainbat mutil; hainbat etxe; mutil asko; etxe asko, mutil hori; etxe hori; bost mutil; bost etxetan...)
4- Several simple rules:
a+a=a; examples: ama+a=ama; ama+ari=amari; ama+aren=amaren, etc.
a+e=e, as in "neska+ek= neskek"; "neska+ei=neskei"; "neska+en=nesken"...
e+e=eek, as in "lore+ek=loreek"; "lore+ei=loreei"; "lore+en=loreen"...
the "(e)" of the indefinite case is used when the name has a consonant at the end, as in "mutil+(e)k=mutilek"; "zuhaitz+(e)tara=zuhaitzetara"; "arkaitz+etan=arkaitzetan" .
the "(r)" of the indefinite case is used when the name has a vowel at the end, as in "neska+(r)en=neskaren"; "ume+(r)entzat=umerentzat"; "aita+(r)i=aitari" .
EXAMPLES and EXERCICES (Change the sentences using the words between brackets as indicated)
NOR ETORRI DA? (Who came?)
Nire osaba etorri da (My uncle came)
(Guraso; plural)--> Gurasoak etorri dira
ZER GERTATU DA? (What happened?)
Bazkaria erre da (Our lunch burned) (Zuhaitz; plural)
NORK EGIN DU? (Who did it?)
Ekaitzak egin du (The storm did it)
ZERK ERAGIN DU? (What caused it?)
Haizeak eragin du (The wind caused it) (Euri; plural)
NORI EMAN DIOZU? (To whom did you give it?)
Erizainari eman diot (I gave it to the nurse)
NOREN AULKIA DA HORI? (Whose chair is that?)
Amaren izena hartu du nik (I took my mother's name)
NOREKIN IBILI ZARA? (Who did you go with?)
Itziarrekin atera naiz (I went out with Itziar)
NORENTZAT DA OPARI HORI? (Who is this present for?)
Amumarentzat katu bat ekarri dugu (We brought a cat for grandmother)
NORENGATIK GALDETU DUTE? (Who did they ask for?)
ZERENGATIK ORDAINDU DUZU HAINBESTE DIRU
(What for did you pay so much money?
Diruagatik egin dut (I did it for money)
NON DAGO ABADINO? (Where is Abadino?)
Kalean ez dago inor (There is nobody on the street)
NONGOA ZARA? (Where are you from?)
NONGO GAZTA DA HAU? (Where is this cheese from?)
Errioxako ardoa gustatzen zait (I like the wine of Rioja)
NONDIK ETORRI DA HAIZE ZAKAR HAU? (Where did this strong wind come from?)
Iparraldetik dator eguraldi hotza (The cold weather comes from the north)
NORA JOAN DIRA DENAK? (Where did everybody go?)
Bilbora joan dira kamioiak (The trucks went to Bilbao)
NORAINO IRITSI DA UHOLDEA? (Where did the flood reach up to?)
Everesteraino iritsi dira mendizaleak (The climbers went up to the Everest)
NORANTZ ABIATU DIRA TXIRRINDULARIAK (In which direction did the cyclists go?)
Nafarroarantz abiatu dira (They went towards Navarre) (Etxe; singular)
NORAKO BIDEA DA HAU? (Where is this road for?)
Kanposanturako bidea da hau (This is the road to the cemetery)
NORTAZ HITZEGIN DUTE? (Who did they talk about?)
ZERTAZ HITZEGIN DUTE? (What did they talk about?)
Historiaz idatzi du Anderrek (Ander wrote about history)
Note: Exercises will be corrected
in the next lesson. You may ask questions on the
newsgroup, somebody will sure answer.
If you have any suggestions, please write us to
Maria S. Santisteban
Maria S. Santisteban