(You will find a small vocabulary at the end of the lesson)


(The "dative" case, used with indirect objects)


-Aitak amari gona gorria ekarri dio:
Father brought a red skirt for mother.
-Bertsotan kontatuko dizuet dakidan guztia.
I will tell you in verse all I know.
-Katua amodioz hil zait.
My cat died of love (literally, "the cat died to me from love")

Do you remember from the FIRST LESSON, the nominative case NOR-ZER?

indefinite : - (neska, mutil) [no suffix added]
singular : - a (neska, mutila)
plural : -ak (neskak, mutilak)

Let's compare it with NORI, applied to the names "neska" (girl) and "mutil" (boy):

indefinite : - (r) I (neskari, mutili)
singular : - ARI (neskari, mutilari)
plural : -EI (neskei, mutilei)

(Note: a+e=e, as in "neska+ei= neskEI";
a+a=a, as in "neska+ari=neskARI";
e+e=ee, as in "lore+ei=loreEI";
the "(r)" of the indefinite case is used when the name has a vowel at the end, as in "neska+(r)I= neskari").

As you can see, some forms look the same, and the context becomes important to figure out what case we are dealing with.

*NORI examples:

Niri txano gorria jarri dit amamak (grandma has put me the red cap)
Senarrak jertsea zikindu dio Anari (her husband has soiled Ana her sweater)
Emazteak bakero batzuk erosi dizkizu zuri (your wife has bought you some jeans)
Zulatu egin diete eskola uniformea ikasleei (somebody tore the students a hole in their school uniform)
Zazpi emakumeri egin diete azterketa (they passed the exam to seven women)
Zazpi emakumeei eman diete diploma (they gave the diploma to the seven women)
Lehengusuei maletatxo bana oparitu diegu (We gave our cousins a briefcase as a present)

2. NOR-NORI-NORK auxiliary verb (present tense)

This verb works *only* as an auxiliary, in *transitive* sentences. There are three persons involved: the direct object (singular or plural), the agent or subject, and the indirect object (the person who gets the direct object). Each one of these persons adds a mark into this auxiliary verb.


Ileapaintzaileak ilea moztu dit ("The hairdresser cut my hair")
Subject: Ileapaintzaileak ("The hairdresser")
Direct object: ilea ("my hair")
Indirect object (omited): niri ("to me")

INDICATIVE (present tense)

Direct Object   	Indirect Object         Subject
                (dative)		(ergative)
Sing.   (Plural)

Di      (zki)   T (da)  		-T		(1.Nik)
Di      (zki)   K/N (a/na)		-K/N    	(2.Hik)
Di      (zki)   ZU      		-ZU		(2.Zuk)
Di      (zki)   O       		-       	(3.Hark)
Di      (zki)   GU      		-GU     	(1.Guk)
Di      (zki)   ZUE     		-ZUE    	(2.Zuek)
Di      (zki)   E       		-TE     	(3.Haiek)

How does it work, this labyrinth?

Simple. It's an art of combinating objects and subjects.


-Txakurrak galtzerdiA puskatu dit (The dog tore my sock)

and, the same in plural

-Txakurrak galtzerdiAK puskatu dizkit (The dog tore my socks)

Direct object (NOR): galtzerdia (sing.), galtzerdiak (plural) [sock, socks]
Indirect object [omitted] (NORI): niri [to me]
Subject (NORK): TxakurrAK (the dog)

*More examples:

All possible combinations with the subject in the second singular person (ZUK):

Susto ederra eman DIDAZU (YOU gave ME a big fright)
Susto ederra eman DIOZU (YOU gave HIM/HER a big fright)
Susto ederra eman DIGUZU (YOU gave US a big fright)
Susto ederra eman DIEZU (YOU gave THEM a big fright)

Now, you may try the same with the rest of the persons.

EXERCISES: Change the verb according to the indirect objetc

Kotxe handia erosi DUT ("I bought a big car")
(zuri) : Kotxe handia erosi DIZUT (I bought YOU a big car)
Baserri zaharra saldu DUGU ("We sold the old country house")
Mahatsa ohostu DUTE bide ertzetik ("They stole some raisin close to the road")
(hiri masc.)
(hiri fem.)


Aita: father
Ama: mother
Amama: grandma
Amodioz: of love (amodio+z)
Ana: Ann (personal name)
Azterketa: exam
Bakero: jeans
Bana: one for each one (bat+na: bana)
Baserri: country house
Batzuk: some
Bertso: verse (mostly sung and improvised)
Bide: trail; road
Dakidan: (that) I know (Verb JAKIN: to know; Dakit: I know)(With a relative particle: dakit+n: dakidan)
Diploma: diploma
Eder: nice; big
Egin: to do
Ekarri: to bring
Emakume: woman
Eman: to give
Emazte: wife
Erosi: to buy
Ertze: side, edge
Eskola: school
Galtzerdi: sock
Gona: skirt
Gorri: red
Guztia: all
Handi: big
Hil: to die; to kill
Ikasle: student
Jarri: to put
Jertsea: sweater
Katu: cat
Kontatu: to tell, relate, recount
Kotxe: car
Lehengusu: cousin
Mahats: raisin
Maletatxo: small briefcase (maleta+txo)
Niri: to me
Ohostu: to steal
Oparitu: to give something as a present
Puskatu: to tear
Saldu: to sell
Senar: husband
Susto: fright
Txakur: dog
Txano: cap
Uniforme: uniform
Zahar: old
Zazpi: seven
Zikindu: to soil
Zulatu: to tore a hole
Zuri: to you (zu+ri); white

Note: Exercises will be corrected in the next lesson. You may ask questions on the newsgroup, but we can't garantee any answer. Maybe others can also help you. If you have any suggestions, please write us to


Maria S. Santisteban