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Note 20: The Basque Word for Rabbit
by Larry Trask
|Larry Trask, a world expert on Basque linguistics and the history of the Basque language, passed away on March 28, 2004. Larry contributed extensively to several online communities, including Basque-L and the Indoeuropean list. This collection of his postings is dedicated in his memory.|
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The Basque words for 'rabbit' are a big headache. The Bizkaian word <kui>,
which is recorded only from about 1800, probably derives from earlier
*<kuni>. And this *<kuni> must surely be connected somehow to Latin
<cuniculus> 'rabbit', the source of Castilian <conejo> -- but nobody is
too sure just what the nature of the connection is.
The other word is the bigger problem. The modern standard form is <untxi>,
which is recorded only from 1842. The earliest citation of the word is
Larramendi's <enchea> in 1745, which we interpret as the definite form of
<entxe>. In addition, Roncalese has <untxe>, wrongly reported as <untxi>
Now, this <entxe> ~ <untxe> ~ <untxi> might derive from an earlier
*<euntxe>, which might in turn derive from a still earlier *<enuxe> or
something similar. And this is just similar enough to the Latino-Romance
word to make us wonder if it is borrowed from Romance. The Latin accusative
<cuniculum>, with its long /i/, should have yielded a Romance form
*<conixo>, though the Castilian form points rather to *<conexo>. Now,
loss of the word-initial /k/ in borrowings into Basque is possible -- there
are several parallels -- and so we might ask if Romance *<conexo>, or
whatever, might have been taken into Basque as something like *<onexu>.
But is this hypothetical *<onexu> close enough to our seemingly required
*<enuxe> to be a source? Not obviously. If the Basque word has been
borrowed from Romance in this way, then some very strange things have
happened to it along the way. A Romance origin is therefore just about
possible, but the evidence for it is hardly overwhelming, and a native
origin is at least equally likely. But note that <tx> in the Basque word.
If the word is native, then we must be looking at a diminutive of an earlier
form containing <tz> or <ts> -- much as <(t)xakur> has displaced earlier
<zakur> as the ordinary word for 'dog'.
But there's another proposal on the table. This is that <untxi> derives
from a diminutive of *<kuni>. The idea is that *<kuni>, before losing
its /n/, took the diminutive suffix <-txi> to produce *<kuntxi>, after
which the /k/ was lost. This is actually quite good as a source for
<untxi>, but sadly it has nothing to say about Larramendi's <entxe>,
which doesn't look at all like a plausible development of <untxi>.
Nobody knows, and the origin of <untxi> is a great mystery. Since deriving
it from Latin or Romance requires such tortured developments in
pronunciation, I lean slightly toward a native origin -- possibly with
some contamination from the Romance word. But I doubt we'll ever know.
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